广西快乐十分走势图200期
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Publications


  • 9-April-2021

    English

    Making Dispute Resolution More Effective – MAP Peer Review Report, Liechtenstein (Stage 2) - Inclusive Framework on BEPS: Action 14

    Under Action 14, countries have committed to implement a minimum standard to strengthen the effectiveness and efficiency of the mutual agreement procedure (MAP). The MAP is included in Article 25 of the OECD Model Tax Convention and commits countries to endeavour to resolve disputes related to the interpretation and application of tax treaties. The Action 14 Minimum Standard has been translated into specific terms of reference and a methodology for the peer review and monitoring process. The minimum standard is complemented by a set of best practices. The peer review process is conducted in two stages. Stage 1 assesses countries against the terms of reference of the minimum standard according to an agreed schedule of review. Stage 2 focuses on monitoring the follow-up of any recommendations resulting from jurisdictions' stage 1 peer review report. This report reflects the outcome of the stage 2 peer monitoring of the implementation of the Action 14 Minimum Standard by Liechtenstein, which is accompanied by a document addressing the implementation of best practices.
  • 16-June-2020

    English

    Decarbonising Urban Mobility with Land Use and Transport Policies - The Case of Auckland, New Zealand

    The report presents an in-depth analysis of various policies that aim to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions of urban transport. Decarbonising transport lies at the core of efforts to mitigate climate change and has close links to urban sustainability and housing affordability. The report identifies the drivers of rising emissions in the urban transport sector and offers pathways to reduce them through a combination of transport and land use policies. The analysis yields a holistic welfare evaluation of these policies, assessing them according to their environmental effectiveness, their economic efficiency and their impact on fiscal balance and housing affordability. The report concludes that significant reductions in emissions from urban transport can be achieved through a careful alignment of transport policies designed to promote the use of public transit and electric vehicles, and land use policies, which foster a more compact urban form. The study is based on the case of Auckland, New Zealand but the lessons drawn are relevant for institutions and governments working on issues relating to urban sustainability, transport, housing and climate change mitigation.
  • 15-May-2020

    English

    Broadening Innovation Policy - New Insights for Cities and Regions

    This publication summarises the main findings of a series of high-level expert workshops, organised with support by the European Commission, to deepen the understanding how OECD countries can move towards a broad?based form of innovation policy for regions and cities. Weaknesses in technology and knowledge diffusion are weighing on productivity growth and innovation in OECD countries, particularly in firms that are distant from the technological frontier (global or national). This in turn weakens their capacity to meet future challenges and undermines inclusive growth. This report examines where current tools for innovation policy are too narrowly focused, targeting mainly research and development as well as science and technology-based interventions. It seeks to help empower firms to benefit from global trends and technological change, in order to better adapt to the different capacity and innovation eco?systems across regions and cities.
  • 4-May-2020

    English

    Who Cares? Attracting and Retaining Care Workers for the Elderly

    This report presents the most up-to-date and comprehensive cross-country assessment of long-term care (LTC) workers, the tasks they perform and the policies to address shortages in OECD countries. It highlights the importance of improving working conditions in the sector and making care work more attractive and shows that there is space to increase productivity by enhancing the use of technology, providing a better use of skills and investing in prevention.Population ageing has outpaced the growth of workers in the long-term care (LTC) sector and the sector struggles with attracting and retaining enough workers to care for those dependent on others for care. Non-standard work is widespread, pay levels tend to be lower than similar-qualification jobs in other health sectors, and LTC workers experience more health problems than other health workers. Further, educational requirements tend to be insufficient to perform more demanding and growing tasks of LTC. With growing demand for care at home, better co-ordination between the health and long-term care sectors and between formal and informal careers is needed.
  • 30-April-2020

    English

    Achieving the New Curriculum for Wales

    Wales (United Kingdom) is on the path to transform the way children learn, with a new curriculum aimed to prepare its children and young people to thrive at school and beyond. The new curriculum for Wales intends to create a better learning experience for students, to engage teachers’ professionalism, and to contribute to the overall improvement of Welsh education. An education policy is only as good as its implementation, however, and Wales turned to the OECD for advice on the next steps to implement the curriculum. This report analyses the progress made with the new curriculum since 2016, and offers suggestions on the actions Wales should take to ready the system for further development and implementation. The analysis looks at the four pillars of implementation — curriculum policy design, stakeholders' engagement, policy context and implementation strategy — and builds upon the literature and experiences of OECD countries to provide tailored advice to Wales. In return, the report holds value not only for Wales, but also for other education systems across the OECD looking to implement a curriculum or to enhance their implementation processes altogether.
  • 27-April-2020

    English

    SME and Entrepreneurship Policy in Brazil 2020

    This publication presents the findings of the OECD review of SME and entrepreneurship policy in Brazil. SMEs play an important role for economic growth and social inclusion in Brazil, accounting for 62% of total employment and 50% of national value added. However, productivity gaps between SMEs and large companies are wider in Brazil than in the OECD area, which is also the result of low innovation and export propensity among Brazilian SMEs. Business ownership and business creation are common, but growth-oriented entrepreneurship is much less widespread.Brazil’s SME policy is enshrined in the 1988 Federal Constitution, which grants to micro and small enterprises a preferential treatment in different policy areas (e.g. tax and labour law). Brazilian SME policies are, therefore, mostly aimed at this constituency, whereas mid-sized firms are largely missing in the national policy debate. Simples Nacional, a preferential tax and regulatory regime, is the main federal SME policy, but Brazil also operates a large number of targeted programmes for SMEs. This report provides policy recommendations to enhance Brazil’s SME and entrepreneurship performance, covering, among others, innovation policy, export support, access to finance, and women’s entrepreneurship.
  • 24-April-2020

    English

    Review of International Regulatory Co-operation of the United Kingdom

    International regulatory co-operation (IRC) provides an opportunity for countries to consider the impacts of their regulations beyond their borders, to expand the evidence for decision-making, to learn from the experience of their peers and to develop concerted approaches to challenges that transcend borders. This review documents the context of IRC policies and practices in the United Kingdom. It covers both the UK’s unilateral efforts to embed international considerations in domestic rulemaking and its bilateral, regional and multilateral co-operative efforts on regulatory matters. In addition, the review provides a snapshot of IRC in practice in the United Kingdom with four case studies on financial services, nuclear energy, medical and healthcare products and product safety. At a time when IRC is an increasingly essential, yet largely untapped, tool for addressing transboundary policy challenges, this review offers valuable lessons to countries within the OECD and beyond.
  • 21-April-2020

    English

    Multi-dimensional Review of Viet Nam - Towards an Integrated, Transparent and Sustainable Economy

    Since the launch of the D?i M?i economic reforms in 1986, Viet Nam has achieved tremendous economic and social progress. Today, it is well integrated on global markets, has enjoyed robust growth, and has seen remarkable poverty reduction. With its recent successful fiscal consolidation, its attractiveness as a trading destination and rapidly growing domestic middle class, Viet Nam faces a window of opportunity for its transition to an inclusive market economy. Three guiderails should form the basis of this strategy: integration, transparency and sustainability. Better integration between state-owned enterprises, foreign investors and domestic private companies in open markets will be key to future performance gains. Partnerships between universities and enterprises would also help upgrade skills and create innovation, thereby making the integration durable. Transparency and performance of government are prerequisites for trust and a key lever to enhance efficiency and productivity in most areas of the state and the economy. A more sustainable development path will need better management of water, air and energy to address climate change. Reforms of the social security system can also ensure that no one is left behind, especially in the face of a fast ageing population.
  • 17-April-2020

    English

    Is Cardiovascular Disease Slowing Improvements in Life Expectancy? - OECD and The King's Fund Workshop Proceedings

    Evidence that cardiovascular disease is contributing to the slowdown in improvements in life expectancy in some OECD countries prompted OECD and The King’s Fund to convene an international workshop to examine this issue. Invitees included members of OECD’s Health Care Quality and Outcomes Working Party and five international experts. This publication describes the workshop proceedings and conclusions about the evidence on trends in cardiovascular disease mortality, their drivers and the policy implications. The report includes contributions by the plenary speakers, Susanne L?gstrup (European Heart Network), Jessica Ho (University of Southern California), Catherine Johnson (Institute of Health Metrics and Evaluation), Anton Kunst (Amsterdam AMC) and Martin O’Flaherty (University of Liverpool). It shows cardiovascular disease is an important contributor to slowing life expectancy improvements in some countries, and flags some measurement problems such as international differences and changes in diagnostic practices and cause of death coding, and the complex linkages between cardiovascular disease and other causes of death. The report calls for improvements in national and international data and monitoring to support more timely and effective policy responses for preventing, managing and treating cardiovascular disease, and for tackling socio-economic and gender inequalities.
  • 17-April-2020

    English

    Rural Development Strategy Review of Ethiopia - Reaping the Benefits of Urbanisation

    Addressing rural development is key for Ethiopia’s growth process. A series of government-led structural reforms have contributed to sustained growth in the country over the last two decades as well as to considerable poverty reduction in rural areas. However, Ethiopia faces critical challenges it will need to overcome to meet the needs of a growing rural population. In practice, this will require updating the existing rural development strategy in order to better integrate the interaction of rural and urban areas. Policy approaches that account for the fast urbanisation process experienced in the country will therefore be key to improving the well-being of rural populations and promoting national growth.This report takes a spatial approach to study Ethiopia’s rural development strategies. It highlights the need to develop stronger and more functional linkages between rural and urban areas. As such, the development of intermediary cities and small urban centres provides large scope for inclusive rural transformation. The report is the result of rigorous analysis, and extensive consultations with national and international stakeholders. It identifies some of the key challenges faced by rural areas and provides a series of recommendations to enhance Ethiopia’s rural development strategies.
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